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Carl Jung (1875-1961)

1903. The couple had five children and remained married until Emma died in 1955.


Jung sent a copy of his book Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in 1906, and Freud reciprocated by inviting Jung to visit Vienna. Their friendship lasted until 1913, at which time they parted ways due to a difference in academic opinion. Jung agreed with Freud’s theory of the unconscious, but Jung also believed in the existence of a deeper collective unconscious and representative archetypes. Freud openly

criticized Jung's theories, and this fundamental difference caused their friendship and psychological views to diverge.

Jung travelled throughout the world to teach and influence others with his psychoanalytical theories. He published many books relating to psychology, and others that seemed outside the realm science, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies, which examined and dissected the psychological significance of UFO sightings. Jung’s work embodied his belief that each person has a life purpose that is based on a spiritual self. Through his eastern, western, and mythological studies, Jung developed a theory of transformation called individuation that he explored in Psychology and Alchemy, a book in which he detailed the relationship of alchemies in the psychoanalytical process.


Carl Jung is recognized as one of the most influential psychiatrists of all time. He founded analytical psychology and was among the first experts in his field to explore the religious nature behind human psychology. He argued that empirical evidence was not the only way to arrive at psychological or scientific truths and that the soul plays a key role in the psyche. Key contributions of Jung include:

  • The collective unconscious: A universal cultural repository of archetypes and human experiences.

  • Dream analysis and the interpretation of symbols from the collective unconscious that shows up in dreams.

  • Extroversion and introversion: Jung was the first to identify these two personality traits, and some of his work continues to be used in

  • the theory of personality and in personality testing.

  • Psychological complexes: A cluster of behaviours, memories, and emotions grouped around a common theme. For example, a child who was deprived of food might grow into an adult smoker, nail biter, and compulsive eater, focusing on the theme of oral satiation.

  • An emphasis on spirituality: Jung argued that spirituality and a sense of the connectedness of life could play a profound role in emotional health.

  • Individuation: The integration and balancing of dual aspects of personality to achieve psychic wholenesses, such as thinking and feeling, introversion and extroversion, or the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. Jung argued that people who have individuated are happier, more ethical, and more responsible.

  • The persona and the shadow: The persona is the public version of the self that serves as a mask for the ego, and the shadow is a set of infantile, suppressed behaviours and attitudes.

  • Synchronicity: A phenomenon that occurs when two seemingly unrelated events occur close to one another, and the person experiencing the events interprets this correlation as meaningful.

In addition, some of Jung's patients helped to found Alcoholics Anonymous, inspired by Jung's belief in an evangelic cure for alcoholism.


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